For a success story of government action and private volunteerism, look at Chicago's Des Plaines River. The Des Plaines is, in fact, man-made, created as a channel to drain a Chicago marsh in the 1800s. Electrofishing surveys of the dirty Des Plaines conducted in the 1980s showed only carp, goldfish, and a few catfish able to survive in its polluted waters. In the 1980s the City of Chicago built a new stormwater abatement system, the Tunnel and Reservoir Program ("Tarp" or "Deep Tunnel") that captures, treats, and releases storm-water runoff and sewage that used to wash into rivers during rainstorms. Deep Tunnel cleared urban waters throughout Chicago. Crappies and northerns took hold in the Des Plaines. Locals noticed, forming a group called the Hoffman Dam River Rats. The River Rats monitor the river and have helped the Illinois Department of Natural Resources plant thousands of aquatic plants in the recovering Des Plaines. Now the river supports healthy populations of smallmouths, northerns, crappies, walleyes, and some saugers.