Reloaders can make the 16-gauge nearly the ballistic equal of the 12, and the guns are lighter and slimmer. If you rely on factory ammunition, however, you will not be able to buy target loads nor suitable nontoxic loads for dove hunting with the 16. A 20-gauge shoots an ounce of lead shot well, and you can load it up to 11/8- or even 1-ounce 12-gauge payloads-but if you're going to do that, why not shoot a 12 in the first place? All in all, though, the 20 makes a delightful dove gun without quite the long reach of a 12-gauge. Twenty-eight-gauges are a joy to shoot and deadly out to 30 yards. There's good 28-gauge ammunition available, like the sporting clays loads of 8 shot made by all of the Big Three, but it is expensive. As to the .410, although many folks will disagree and some water-hole shooters can prove me wrong, I believe the .410's sole purpose is to teach humility on clay target fields.