Born in Quebec in 1888, John C. Garand, one of 12 children, moved with his family to Connecticut and worked in a shooting gallery, as a machinist in a textile mill, and as a tool and die maker. He combined his interests in invention and target shooting by becoming a gun designer, working as engineer at the Springfield Armory from 1919 to 1953. It took 15 years to perfect the gas-operated rifle that would become the M1. Garand patented the design in 1932, and the rifle was delivered to the Army beginning in 1937. The M1, incidentally, was nearly chambered in .276 Pedersen, until Douglas McArthur, then the Army Chief of Staff, disapproved it, as there were already huge stocks of .30/06 ammunition on hand.