If the salmon fail to reproduce before perishing, it could create a dire situation for the species. However, in the mid-1990s the sockeye population dwindled to between approximately 30,000 and 50,000 fish entering the Columbia Basin. Since that time, billions of dollars have been spent restoring the sockeyes' habitat, increasing water flow, and improving fish ladders at dams. These efforts have greatly bolstered sockeye populations in the area, but now fishery managers could have to take additional measures to protect them. Russell Bussanich, an Okanagan National Alliance fishery biologist, says future solutions could include closing recreational fisheries more often, as well as trucking salmon from the lower Columbia to Canada.