According to the Wildlife Resources Commission, CWD has not yet been found in North Carolina, but in 2010 and 2011, it was detected in deer just across the West Virginia border and in Virginia and Maryland. Concerns over CWD first spiked in 2002 as the disease spread from the West. At that time, there were 110 people with permits for captive cervids (moose, elk, and deer) in North Carolina but no game plan to keep CWD out of the state. The commission spent $250,000 buying captive deer, killing them, and giving the meat of healthy deer to charities. Deer farming operations have been small-scale ever since, and previous attempts to expand deer farming interests have so far been unsuccessful.