The more powder you burn in proportion to the bore size, the quicker your barrel dies. A .308, which takes 40 to 46 grains of powder, has a barrel life of perhaps 5,000 rounds. The .300 Win Mag, which has the same bore diameter but takes 70 to 80 grains roughly, has half that.
Stainless steel barrels outlast chrome moly by a considerable margin, stainless being more resistant to heat erosion.
The higher the chamber pressure, the hotter the powder flame, and the shorter the barrel life.
Barrels do not die from the friction of the bullet passing up the bore; they die from the blowtorch blast of flame at the lede of the rifling. Anyone who claims otherwise is a Common Fool and should be beaten in public.
No method of rifling a barrel gives longer or shorter life, nor does any type of rifling. At least that I know of. Chrome plating, however, does work, and is performed on the chambers and bores of U.S. military weapons*. However, it raises the cost of the barrel, and lessens its accuracy. All things considered, for civilian guns, it ain't worth the effort.
The overwhelming percentage of hunting rifle barrels perish not from erosion, but from improper cleaning, or no cleaning.