Smithsonian Trail Cam Gallery: 100 Photos of Rare, Bizarre and Just Plain Cool Critters From Around The World

Last week I stumbled across a neat new web site from the Smithsonian Institution called Smithsonian WILD. It features a collection of more than 200,000 photos taken by researches using trail cameras to study wildlife populations in nine different locations around the world. The site is the brainchild of William McShea, a senior research science at the National Zoo in Washington, D.C., who designed it to "showcase the exciting research conducted by the Smithsonian Institution and its collaborators around the world, and to highlight the incredible diversity of wildlife that exists in a range of habitats across the globe." When I called him up to ask if we could run a selection of the photos on our site, he was more than happy to oblige. "Hunters are driving the market for trail cam technology, and and that has translated into direct benefits for our research," he said. "You can run as many as you like." What follows are our picks for the 100 best shots from their collection. Enjoy! -- Nate Matthews, Online Editor, fieldandstream.com Project Description:
Location: Amazon Rainforest
Arabela River, Peru

2008
Cameras Used: Reconyx RC55
Number of Camera Stations: 23
Objectives: This camera survey had two objectives: 1) To inventory medium to large-sized mammal species in a previously unstudied region of the Peruvian Amazon, and 2) To investigate the impact of oil exploration on carnivore movement and activity, with a particular focus on the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). Species: Ocelot & Armadillo_**
Species Description:**_ The ocelot, also known as the Dwarf Leopard, McKenney's Wildcat, Jaguatirica (in Brazil), Jaguarete (in Paraguay and Argentina), Tigrillo (in Ecuador, Colombia and Peru), Cunaguaro (in Venezuela), or Manigordo (in Costa Rica and Panama) is a wild cat distributed over South and Central America and Mexico, but has been reported as far north as Texas and in Trinidad, in the Caribbean. North of Mexico, it is found regularly only in the extreme southern part of Texas, although there are rare sightings in Southern Arizona. The ocelot is similar in appearance to a domestic cat. Its fur resembles that of a Clouded Leopard or Jaguar and was once regarded as particularly valuable. As a result, hundreds of thousands of ocelots were once killed for their fur. The ocelot ranges from 27 to 39 inches in length, plus 10 to 18 inches of tail length, and typically weighs 18 to 22 pounds, although much larger individuals have occasionally been recorded, making it the largest of the generally dainty Leopardus wild cat genus. It has the lowest resting body temperature of any feline. The ocelot is mostly nocturnal and very territorial. It will fight fiercely, sometimes to the death, in territorial disputes. In addition, the cat marks its territory with especially pungent urine. Like most felines, it is solitary, usually meeting only to mate. However, during the day it rests in trees or other dense foliage, and will occasionally share its spot with another ocelot of the same sex._
Source: Wikipedia/Encyclopedia of Life_ _**
**_
Project Description:
Location: 40 km Southeast of Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia
September, 2005 - July, 2007
Cameras Used: Deercam DC-200, Non-Typical Inc. of Camera Stations: 212 Objectives:
To investigate the distribution of mammals within a mosaic of Acacia plantation and natural forest in Sarawak, Malaysia. We hoped to assist forestry managers in determining what extent of natural forest must remain to maintain large mammal species within the forest mosaic. Species: Bearded Pig
Species description:
The Bearded Pig (Sus barbatus), also known as the Bornean Bearded Pig, is a species of pig. It can be recognized by its prominent beard. It also sometimes has tassels on its tail. It is found in Southeast Asia--Sumatra, Borneo, the Malay Peninsula, and various smaller islands--where it inhabits rainforests and mangrove forests. The Bearded Pig has the slimmest torso and longest head of all the living pigs. Distinguishing characteristics include two pairs of warts on the face with the first pair covered by the beard hair, thin whiskers on the face, and a two-rowed tail tuft. Pigs in general are medium sized artiodactyls with large heads, a short neck, and a powerful and agile body covered with a coarse bristly coat of hair. The Bearded Pig has a dark brown-gray coat with a distinctive white beard on the face. It has small eyes and fairly long ears, corresponding with a well developed sense of hearing. The snout ends in a mobile disk-shaped structure that bears the nostrils. The snout is prominent and the sense of smell is well developed. The snout has on it a set of tusks formed by the lower canine teeth. For the majority of the year, Bearded Pigs live in one location in a stable family group. They are active during the day aside from times of migration, when they switch to activity at night. Bearded Pigs are unique among the pigs in the extensive migrations that they take. Several hundred animals join together for the purpose of migration. The migrating herds are led by old boars. Travel is done at night on wide paths, which are well worn. During the day the pigs retreat to thickets. Bearded Pigs always travel by the same route and at the same time of year. During migration, the pigs are much less shy than usual. It is not clear whether the migrations are in response to variations in food supply or due to a regular migratory cycle.
Source: Encyclopedia of Life **
**
Project Description:
Location: Giant Panda Reserves
Sichuan and Shaanxi Provinces, China

2002 - 2010
Cameras Used: DeerCam (film), CamTrakker (both film and digital), TM-1/2 (film, made in China), TCB-1000 (digital, made in China) of Camera Stations: 732 Objectives: To determine the distribution of large mammal species within current giant panda nature reserve, and help local reserves establish a large mammal monitoring system using camera-trapping. Species: Wild Boar
Species description: Wild boar (also wild pig, Sus scrofa) is a species of the pig genus Sus, part of the biological family Suidae. The species includes many subspecies. It is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig, an animal with which it freely hybridises. Wild boar are native across much of Northern and Central Europe, the Mediterranean Region (including North Africa's Atlas Mountains) and much of Asia as far south as Indonesia. Populations have also been artificially introduced in some parts of the world, most notably the Americas and Australasia, principally for hunting. Elsewhere, populations have also become established after escapes of wild boar from captivity Adult males are usually solitary outside of the breeding season, but females and their offspring (both sub-adult males and females) live in groups called sounders. The body of the wild boar is compact; the head is large, the legs relatively short. The fur consists of stiff bristles and usually finer fur. The colour usually varies from dark grey to black or brown, but there are great regional differences in colour; even whitish animals are known from central Asia. During winter the fur is much denser. Wild boar are situationally crepuscular or nocturnal, foraging in early morning and late afternoon or at night, but resting for periods during both night and day. They are omnivorous scavengers, eating almost anything they come across, including grass, nuts, berries, carrion, roots, tubers, refuse, insects and small reptiles. Wild boar in Australia are also known to be predators of young deer and lambs. If surprised or cornered, a boar (particularly a sow with her piglets) can and will defend itself and its young with intense vigor. The male lowers its head, charges, and then slashes upward with his tusks. The female, whose tusks are not visible, charges with her head up, mouth wide, and bites. Such attacks are not often fatal to humans, but may result in severe trauma, dismemberment, or blood loss.
Source: Wikipedia
_** **_
Location: China
Species: Giant Panda
Species Description:
The giant panda, or panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, literally meaning "black and white cat-foot") is a bear native to central-western and south western China. It is easily recognized by its large, distinctive black patches around the eyes, over the ears, and across its round body. Though it belongs to the order Carnivora, the panda's diet is 99% bamboo. Pandas in the wild will occasionally eat other grasses, wild tubers, or even meat in the form of birds, rodents or carrion. The giant panda lives in a few mountain ranges in central China, mainly in Sichuan province, but also in the Shaanxi and Gansu provinces. Due to farming, deforestation and other development, the panda has been driven out of the lowland areas where it once lived. The giant panda has a black-and-white coat. Adults measure around 5 feet long and around 2 feet 6 inches tall at the shoulder. Males can weigh up to 330 lbs. Females (generally 10-20% smaller than males) can weigh up to 280 lbs. The giant panda has a body shape typical of bears. It has black fur on its ears, eye patches, muzzle, legs, arms and shoulders. The rest of the animal's coat is white. Although scientists do not know why these unusual bears are black and white, some speculate that the bold coloring provides effective camouflage in its shade-dappled snowy and rocky surroundings. The giant panda's thick, wooly coat keeps it warm in the cool forests of its habitat. The giant panda has large molar teeth and strong jaw muscles for crushing tough bamboo. The giant panda's tail, measuring 4 to 6 inches, is the second longest in the bear family. The longest belongs to the Sloth Bear.
Source: Wikipedia
Project Description: **
**Location: Laikipia District, Kenya

Jan, 2008 - present
Cameras Used: Deercam, Reconyx RM45, Covert 550
Number of Camera Stations: 537
Objectives:
To evaluate the effect of 4 levels of livestock management (0-livestock, moderate stocking density, high stocking density group ranch, high stocking density fenced) on wildlife communities, specifically other hooved animals like the giraffes, horses and closer relatives Species: African Buffalo
Species Description:
The African buffalo, affalo, nyathi or Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large African bovine. Owing to its unpredictable nature which makes it highly dangerous to humans, it has not been domesticated, unlike its Asian counterpart, the domestic Asian water buffalo. The African buffalo is one of the most successful grazers in Africa. It lives in swamps, floodplains as well as mopane grasslands and forests of the major mountains of Africa. Buffalo prefer habitat with dense cover such as reeds and thickets. Herds have also been found in open woodland and grassland. While not particularly demanding with regard to habitat, they require water daily and therefore depend on perennial sources of water. Other than humans, African buffalo have few predators and are capable of defending themselves against (and killing) lions. Lions do kill and eat buffalo regularly, but it typically takes multiple lions to bring down a single adult buffalo. However there have been several incidents in which lone adult male lions have been able to successfully bring down large bulls. The Nile crocodile will typically attack only old solitary animals and young calves. The cheetah, leopard and spotted hyena are a threat only to newborn calves, though spotted hyenas have been recorded to kill full-grown bulls on occasion.
Source: Wikipedia _
_
Location: China
Species: Snow Leopard
Species Description:
The Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia or Panthera uncia) is a moderately large cat native to the mountain ranges of South Asia and Central Asia. Snow Leopards live between 9,800 and 18,000 feet above sea level in the rocky mountain ranges of Central Asia. Their secretive nature means that their exact numbers are unknown, but it has been estimated that between 3,500 and 7,000 snow leopards exist in the wild and between 600 and 700 in zoos worldwide. Snow leopards are smaller than the other big cats but, like them, exhibit a range of sizes, generally weighing between 60 and 120 pounds. Body length ranges from 30 to 50 inches, with the tail adding an additional 75 to 90 percent of that length. The cats have long thick fur, and their base color varies from smoky grey to yellowish tan, with whitish underparts. They have dark grey to black open rosettes on their body with small spots of the same color on their heads and larger spots on their legs and tail. Unusually among cats, their eyes are pale green or grey in color. Snow leopards show several adaptations for living in a cold mountainous environment. Their bodies are stocky, their fur is thick, and their ears are small and rounded, all of which help to minimize heat loss. Their paws are wide, which distributes their weight better for walking on snow, and have fur on their undersides to increase their grip on steep and unstable surfaces; it also helps to minimize heat loss. Snow Leopards' tails are long and flexible, helping them to maintain their balance, which is very important in the rocky terrain they inhabit. Their tails are also very thick due to storage of fats and are very thickly covered with fur which allows them to be used like a blanket to protect their faces when asleep. They have a short muzzle and domed forehead, containing unusual large nasal cavities that help the animal breathe the thin, cold air of their mountainous environment. Snow Leopards cannot roar, despite possessing some ossification of the hyoid bone. This ossification was previously thought to be essential for allowing the big cats to roar, but new studies show that the ability to roar is due to other morphological features, especially of the larynx, which are absent in the Snow Leopard. Snow leopard vocalizations include hisses, chuffing, mews, growls, and wailing. Snow Leopards are carnivores and actively hunt their prey, though, like all cats, they are opportunistic feeders, eating whatever meat they can find, including carrion and domestic livestock. They can kill animals three times their size but will readily take much smaller prey such as hares and birds. While unusual among cats, Snow Leopards also eat a significant amount of vegetation, including grass and twigs.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: China
Species: Takin
** _
Species Description:**_ The takin is one of the larger and stockier of the goat antelopes. Short, stocky legs are supported on large two-toed hooves, which have a highly developed spur. The large head is made more distinctive by the arched Roman nose, and both sexes bear stout horns that can reach 64 centimeters in length and are ridged at the base. The long shaggy coat is light in color with a dark stripe along the back, and males (bulls) also have a dark face. Four subspecies of takin are currently recognized, and these tend to show a variation in coat color. The legend of the 'golden fleece', searched for by Jason and the Argonauts, may have been inspired by the lustrous coat of the golden takin (B. t. bedfordi). Rather than localized scent glands, the takin has an oily, strong-smelling substance secreted over the whole body. Takin are found from forested valleys to rocky, grass covered alpine zones; at altitudes of between 1,000 and 4,500 meters above sea level. This species lives in large herds of up to 300 individuals in the upper elevations during the summer, and up to 20 members in the smaller bands that form during winter months. The older males are usually solitary and spend only the mating months with a group. The takin is a very slow moving animal, but also has the ability to leap nimbly from rock to rock on challenging slopes. It spends most of the day in thick vegetation, emerging only to eat. There are seasonal migrations from upper elevations in the summer to lower areas in the winter. When in danger, an individual warns the other members of the herd with a coughing sound.
Source: Encyclopedia of Life
Species: Chinese Serow
Location: China
Species Description:
Belonging to a group known as the goat-antelopes, the serow is a rather small-bodied animal, with dark upperparts that vary in colour, and whitish underparts. The hair of the coat is long and coarse, and a long mane of white, brown or black occurs on the neck. Male and female serows are similar in appearance, with both bearing stout, slightly curved horns which can be used to defend themselves to deadly effect. The long ears are narrow and pointed, the face bears large scent glands below the eyes, and the tail is fairly bushy. The serow is generally a solitary animal, although it may sometimes move about in groups of up to seven individuals. Each serow inhabits a small area which is well marked with trails, dung heaps, and scents. This small area of habitat is selected so it can provide all the needs of the serow, such as sufficient grass, shoots and leaves on which to feed on during the early morning and late evening, and suitable sheltered resting places in caves or under overhanging rocks and cliffs. This home range is defended against any intruding serows by using their dagger-like horns, which are also used by this rather aggressive goat-antelope to fight off predators, such as the snow leopard in Nepal. Although less specialized for climbing rugged mountains than some of its relatives, and with a somewhat slow and clumsy gait, the serow is nevertheless adept at descending steep, rocky slopes, and is also even known to swim between small islands in Malaysia.
Source: Encyclopedia of Life
Species: Takin
Location: China
Project Description:
Location: Khao Yai NP, Thailand
Khao Yai National Park

October 2003 - February 2007
Cameras Used: CamTrakker Film Cameras of Camera Stations: 217 Objectives:
Project Objectives: The purpose of the project was to: 1) continue previous carnivore monitoring; 2) expand into areas previously under-surveyed; and 3) determine the status and distribution of all large mammal species across KYNP. Species: Sun Bear
Species Description: The smallest of the world's eight living bear species, the Malayan sun bear has short, sleek fur which is usually black but can range from reddish-brown to grey. Almost every sun bear has an individually distinct chest patch that is typically yellow, orange, or white, and may sometimes be speckled or spotted. The sun bear has a broad muzzle that is relatively short and a large head, giving the bear a dog-like appearance. It has small, rounded ears, a fleshy forehead that occasionally looks wrinkled, and an extremely long tongue (longest of all bear species). With feet turned slightly inward, large naked paws and long curved claws, the sun bear is well adapted for climbing trees. Its feet are extraordinarily large compared with its body size, potentially assisting in digging and breaking into dead wood in search of insects. The Malayan sun bears on Borneo are the smallest of this species and are considered by many to warrant subspecies status (Helarctos malayanus eurispylus). The Malayan sun bear inhabits both primary and logged, dense Southeast Asian tropical forests, including tropical evergreen rainforest, mountain forest and swamp habitat. It occurs up to 2,000 meters above sea level. Sun bears are active at night and are excellent and agile climbers. They sleep and sun bath in trees at heights from 2 to 7 m. This species does not go through periods of hibernation, probably because they live in tropical areas and their food sources are present year round.
Source: Encyclopedia of Life
Species: Takin
Location: China
Species: Ocelot
Location: Amazon, Peru
**Location: China_
Species:_ Giant Panda _ _**
Location: Peru
Species: South American Red Brocket
Species Description:
The red brocket is the largest of all brocket deer, and also has the greatest range. Named for its foxy red coat, this stout-bodied deer with slender limbs has white fur on the inside of the legs, throat, lips, inner part of the ear and the lower part of the tail. Young red brockets have whitish spots on their coat. Like the majority of deer species, male red brockets have antlers, but they are generally only short, dagger-like spikes. These antlers can be shed at any time of the year, and may be kept for over one year. Fourteen subspecies of the red brocket are currently recognized. Brocket deer usually inhabit forests and woodlands from sea level up to 5,000 meters. The red brocket appears to prefer fairly dry or moist habitats and generally avoids very wet, flooded areas. Little is known about these elusive deer. They are both diurnal and nocturnal. They are usually seen singly or as courting pairs and do not form aggregations. Does hide their spotted young after birth and return to nurse it. The fawn begins to follow its mother several weeks after birth.
Source: Encyclopedia of Life
Location: Thailand Species: Sambar
Species Description: The Sambar (Rusa unicolor) is a large deer native to southern and southeast Asia. Although it primarily refers to R. unicolor, the name "Sambar" is also sometimes used to refer to the Philippine Deer (called the Philippine Sambar) and the Rusa Deer (called the Sunda Sambar). The name is also spelled sambur, or sambhur. The Sambar attains a height of 40 to 63 inches at the shoulder and may weigh as much as 1,200 pounds, though more typically 357-574 pounds. The coat is dark brown with chestnut marks on the rump and underparts. The large, rugged antlers are typically rusine, the brow tines being simple and the beams forked at the tip. In some specimens the antlers exceed 40 inches. The species also has a small but dense mane. The Sambar inhabits much of southern Asia (as far north as the south-facing slopes of the Himalayan Mountains), mainland Southeast Asia (Burma, Thailand, Indochina, the Malay Peninsula), southern China (including Hainan Island), Taiwan, and the islands of Sumatra and Borneo in Indonesia. This deer has been seen congregating in large herds in protected areas such as national parks and reserves in India, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Sambars primarily live in woodland and feed on a variety of vegatation, including grasses, foliage, browse, fruit and water plants. These deer are found in habitats ranging from tropical seasonal forests (tropical dry forests and seasonal moist evergreen forests), subtropical mixed forests (conifers, broadleaf deciduous, and broadleaf evergreen tree species) to tropical rainforests. These deer are seldom far from water and, although primarily of the tropics, are hardy and may range from sea level up to high elevations such as the pine and oak forests on the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains. They also live in montane mixed forests and montane grassland habitats at high elevations in mountains of Northern Thailand and Eastern Taiwan. Sambar prefer the dense cover of deciduous shrubs and grasses for cover. Sambar stags will wallow and dig their antlers in urine soaked soil and then rub against tree trunks. Sambars are capable of remarkable bipedalism for a deer species and stags will stand and mark tree branches above them with their antlers. A stag will also mark itself by spraying urine directly in the face with a highly mobile penis. When sensing danger a sambar will stamp its feet and make a ringing call known as "pooking" or "belling". When confronted by pack-hunting dholes or domestic dogs, a sambar will lower its head with an erect mane and lash at the dogs. Sambars prefer to attack predators in shallow water. Several sambars may form a defensive formation, touching rumps and vocalising loudly at the dogs.
Location: China
Species: Hog Badger
Species Description:
The Hog Badger is very similar in size and build to Meles meles, a Eurasian badger. Hog badgers are typically 550 mm to 700 mm in length, and have tails 120 mm to 170 mm long. Weight ranges from 7 to 14 kg. Fur on the body is yellowish to grey, although the feet and belly are black. Black eye stripes run from the nose to the ears. There are also stripes that run from the mouth to the main stripe. The black stripes are contrasted by white fur on the head. As with the Eurasian badger, the coloration pattern has been interpreted to be a warning to potential enemies that this creature should be left undisturbed. The Hog Badger has long, pale-colored claws and a pig-like snout, which has a patch of naked skin at its tip. The Hog Badger prefers forested areas along with lowland jungles. Hog badgers have been observed to inhabitat areas up to 3,500 m in elevation, and use a wide array of habitat types throughout southeast Asia, including grasslands and agricultural areas. Not much is known about the behavior of the hog badger, but it has been said that are playful animals (Jackson, 2001). They are nocturnal/crepuscular, and spend most of the day hiding in burrows or crevices. Peaks in activity in central China occurred from 3:00 to 5:00 AM, and again in the evening from 7:00 to 9:00 PM (Nowak, 1999). Although Eurasian badgers are social, and have intricate systems of shared dens, or setts, hog badgers are reported to be solitary (Nowak, 1999). Mothers do apparently travel with their young, and probably maintain some home range in the area of a den, as does M. meles. These animals were reported to hibernate from November until February or March Source: Encyclopedia of Life
Location: China
Species: Takin
Location: Kenya
Species: Aardwolf
Species Description:
The aardwolf (Proteles cristata) is a small, insectivorous hyena, native to Eastern and Southern Africa. The name means "earth wolf" in Afrikaans/Dutch. It is also called "maanhaar jackal." Unlike other hyenas, the diet of the aardwolf almost completely consists of termites, other insect larvae and carrion. The aardwolf lives in the scrublands of eastern and southern Africa, areas of land covered with stunted trees or shrubs. It hides in a burrow during the day and comes out at night to search for food. It is related to hyenas, but unlike its relatives, it does not hunt large prey. This unusual animal is a mass killer of insects. It feeds mainly on termites and can eat more than 200,000 in a single night, using its long, sticky tongue to collect them.
Source: Encyclopedia of Life
**Location: Peru
Species: Giant Anteater
Species Description: **The Giant Anteater, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, is the largest species of anteater. It is the only species in the genus Myrmecophaga. It is found in Central and South America from Honduras to northern Argentina. Its fossil remains have been found as far north as northwestern Sonora, Mexico. It is a solitary animal, found in many habitats, including grasslands, deciduous forests and rainforests. It feeds mainly on ants and termites, sometimes up to 30,000 insects in a single day. The jaguar (Panthera onca) and the cougar (Puma concolor) are known predators of giant anteaters. Anteaters use their immense front claws to defend themselves from predators, but their typical response to threat is to run away. Their size makes them invulnerable to all but the largest of predators, jaguars and cougars primarily. They are often killed by humans, either intentionally through hunting or unintentionally through collisions with cars.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Peru
Species: Margay
Species Description:
Margays are small spotted cats that closely resemble ocelots, but are about half the size and lack the ocelot's two prominent black cheek stripes. They are forest-dwellers and good climbers and jumpers, so agile that captives have been seen running along a clothesline, jumping 4 meters horizontally and as high as 2.5 meters vertically, and hanging by their hind feet to manipulate objects with their front paws. They probably often hunt in trees in the wild, for monkeys, sloths, opossums, squirrels, and other small mammals. They probably also prey on birds they are known to go after poultry and some reptiles and amphibians, and may occasionally eat fruits and vegetables. It is unclear if there ever was a viable Margay population in the United States, where they are reported to have occurred in Texas. Work carried out in Central America suggests that the species is declining in response to human activities in the tropics and subtropics and they are protected in many areas. Margays inhabit tropical and subtropical forests. The majority of published observations were made in forested environments, although Leopardus wiedii occasionally occupies more disturbed areas. Margays are notable for their climbing prowess and arboriality. They are capable of hind-foot reversal, and may suspend themselves from their rear feet during descent like a squirrel. Active during day and night, Leopardus wiedii appears to be asocial, with temporary pair bonds formed during the breeding season.
Location: China
Species: Asian Black Bear
Species Description:
The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus), also known as the Moon bear or White-chested bear is a medium-sized species of bear, largely adapted for arboreal life, which occurs through much of southern Asia, Korea, northeastern China, the Russian far east and Honshū and Shikoku islands of Japan. It is classed by the IUCN as a vulnerable species, mostly due to deforestation and active hunting for its body parts. The species is morphologically very similar to some prehistoric bears, and is thought by some scientists to be the ancestor of other extant bear species. Though largely herbivorous, Asian black bears can be very aggressive toward humans, and have frequently attacked people without provocation. The species was described by Rudyard Kipling as "the most bizarre of the ursine species." Asian black bears are similar in general appearance to brown bears, but are more lightly built and more slender limbed. The skulls of Asian black bears are relatively small, but massive, particularly in the lower jaw. In contrast to polar bears, Asian black bears have powerful upper bodies for climbing trees, and relatively weak hind legs, which are shorter than in brown bears and American black bears. A black bear with broken hind legs can still climb effectively. They are the most bipedal of all bears, and have been known to walk upright for over a quarter mile. The heel pads on the forefeet are larger than those of most other bear species. Their claws, which are primarily used for climbing and digging, are slightly longer on fore foot than back, and are larger and more hooked than those of the American black bear. The ears are bell shaped, and are proportionately longer than those of large bears, and stick out sideways from the head. The lips and nose are larger and more mobile than those of brown bears. Adult Asian black bears are smaller than American black bears. Mature males can weigh between 200-255 pounds, with an average weight of about 250 lbs. The famed British sportsman known as the "Old Shekarry" wrote of how a black bear he shot in India probably weighed no less than 800 lbs. based on how many people it took to lift its body, though Gary Brown, author of The Great Bear Almanac writes that the largest Asian black bear on record weighed 440 lbs. Although their senses are more acute than those of brown bears, their eyesight is poor, and their powers of hearing moderate.
Source: Wikipedia
Project Description: Panama Canal Mammal Survey
Location: Barro Colorado Island Nature Monument, Panama Canal, Republic of Panama
2010
Cameras Used: Reconyx RC55 of Camera Stations: 210 Objectives: To determine the community of mammals occupying islands of different sizes in the Panama Canal. Species: Ocelot
Location: China
Species: Snow Partridge
Species Description:
__ The Snow Partridge (Lerwa lerwa) is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae found widely distributed across the high-altitude Himalayan regions of India, Pakistan, Nepal and China. It is the only species within the genus. The species is found in alpine pastures and open hillside above the treeline but not in as bare rocky terrain as the Himalayan Snowcock and is not as wary as that species. Males and females look similar in plumage but males have a spur on their tarsus. Snow Partridge is found in the Himalayas from Pakistan to Arunachal Pradesh along the higher ranges, mainly 3,000 to 5,000 meters (rarely below 2,000 meters) altitude. The usual habitat is alpine pastures, open grassy hillsides with grass, lichens, ferns and rhododendrons. Is found among small snow-patches but not in as stony or bare ground as the snowcock. The birds however are very local in their distribution. The Snow-Partridge is found is small groups, usually about 6 to 8 but up to 30 during the non-breeding season. When flushed, they usually fly up before scattering away with noisy wing beats. The flight is rapid and stirring. It has a habit of sunning itself on rocks during the midday. The call in the breeding season is said to resemble that of the Grey Francolin of the plains. It has been compared in habit to that of the Ptarmigan. It is said to feed on mosses, lichens and the shoots of plants. It also swallows grit to aid digestion.
Source: Encyclopedia of Life
**Location: Panama
Species: Collared Peccary
Species Description: **The collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) is a species of mammal in the family Tayassuidae that is found in North, Central, and South America. They are commonly referred to as javelina, saino or baquiro, although these terms are also used to describe other species in the family. The species is also known as the musk hog and Mexican hog. In Trinidad, it is colloquially known as quenk. Although somewhat related to the pigs and frequently referred to as one, this species and the other peccaries are no longer classified in the pig family, Suidae. The collared peccary is a widespread creature that can be found throughout much of the tropical and subtropical Americas, ranging from the Southwestern United States to northern Argentina in South America. The only Caribbean island it is native to, however, is Trinidad, although introduced populations exist in Cuba. It inhabits deserts and xeric shrublands, tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, flooded grasslands and savannas, tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests, and several other habitats, as well. In addition, it is well adapted to habitats shared by humans, merely requiring sufficient cover; they can be found in cities and agricultural land throughout their range, where they will add human garden plants to their menu. Notable populations are known to exist in the suburbs of Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona. Collared peccaries are diurnal creatures that live in groups of one to twenty individuals, averaging between six and nine members. They frequently sleep at night in burrows, often under the roots of trees. Although they usually ignore humans, they will react if they feel threatened. They defend themselves with their long tusks, which can sharpen themselves whenever their mouths open or close. A collared peccary will also release a strong musk if it is alarmed.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Thailand
Species: Asiatic Jackal
Species Description:
The Golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a medium-sized species of canid which inhabits north and north-eastern Africa, south-eastern and central Europe (up to Austria and Hungary), Asia minor, the Middle East and south east Asia. It is classed by the IUCN as Least Concern, due to its widespread range in areas with optimum food and shelter. It is a highly adaptable species, being able to exploit different foodstuffs and live in numerous different habitats, including the African savannahs, the mountains of the Caucasus and the forests of India. It is the largest of the jackals, and the only species to occur outside Africa. Although often grouped with the other jackals (the black-backed jackal, and the side-striped jackal), genetic research indicates that the golden jackal is more closely related to the gray wolf and the coyote. Once thought to have been the ancestor of some dog breeds, the golden jackal can be hybridised with domestic dogs, with some modern authors stating that the species may have contributed to the breeding of Ancient Egyptian hunting hounds.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: China
Species: Golden Pheasant
Species Description:
__ The Golden Pheasant or "Chinese Pheasant", (Chrysolophus pictus) is a gamebird of the order Galliformes (gallinaceous birds) and the family Phasianidae. It is native to forests in mountainous areas of western China but feral populations have been established in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The adult male is 90-105 cm in length, its tail accounting for two-thirds of the total length. It is unmistakable with its golden crest and rump and bright red body. The deep orange "cape" can be spread in display, appearing as an alternating black and orange fan that covers all of the face except its bright yellow eye, with a pinpoint black pupil. Males have a golden-yellow crest with a hint of red at the tip. The face, throat, chin, and the sides of neck are rusty tan. The wattles and orbital skin are both yellow in colour, and the ruff or cape is light orange. The upper back is green and the rest of the back and rump are golden-yellow in colour. The tertiaries are blue whereas the scapulars are dark red. Another characteristic of the male plumage is the central tail feathers which are black spotted with cinnamon as well as the tip of the tail being a cinnamon buff. The upper tail coverts are the same colour as the central tail feathers. Males also have a scarlet breast, and scarlet and light chestnut flanks and underparts. Lower legs and feet are a dull yellow. The female (hen) is much less showy, with a duller mottled brown plumage similar to that of the female Common Pheasant. She is darker and more slender than the hen of that species, with a proportionately longer tail (half her 60-80 cm length). The female's breast and sides are barred buff and blackish brown, and the abdomen is plain buff. She has a buff face and throat. Some abnormal females may later in their lifetime get some male plumage. Lower legs and feet are a dull yellow. Despite the male's showy appearance, these hardy birds are very difficult to see in their natural habitat, which is dense, dark young conifer forests with sparse undergrowth. Consequently, little is known of their behaviour in the wild. They feed on the ground on grain, leaves and invertebrates, but roost in trees at night_.
Source: Wikipedia_
Location: China
Species: Leopard
Species Description:
Leopards are large spotted cats with long muscular bodies, but a sizable portion of their population is melanistic (solid black), especially in forest habitats. Whether spotted or black, this species' camouflage is so effective that biologists report being unable to see them, even when only a few yards away. Leopards live in highly variable habitats. They feel just as secure in swampy tropical forests as in rugged mountains. They live in lowland forests, mountains, grasslands, brush country, and deserts. A corpse of a leopard was once found at an elevation of 5,630 meters on Kilimanjaro, and not frozen into the ice as some people had suggested. Leopards could, at one time, be found throughout the Old World from Europe and Africa to Asia. Although fragmented Asian populations exist, Africa is their remaining stronghold. The versatile leopard inhabits dense lowland forests, rugged mountains, savanna, bush and even semi-deserts. Leopards are famous for their ability to go undetected. They may live practically among humans and still be tough to spot. They are graceful and stealthy. Amongst the big cats they are probably the most accomplished stalkers. They are good, agile climbers and can descend from a tree headfirst. Along with climbing, they are strong swimmers but not as fond of water as tigers; for example, leopards will not lay in water. They are mainly nocturnal but can be seen at any time of day and will even hunt during daytime on overcast days. In regions where they are hunted, nocturnal behavior is more common. These cats are solitary, avoiding one another. However, 3 or 4 are sometimes seen together. Hearing and eyesight are the strongest of these cats' senses and are extremely acute. Olfaction is relied upon as well, but not for hunting. When making a threat, leopards stretch their backs, depress their ribcages between their shoulder blades so they stick out, and lower their heads (similar to domestic cats). During the day they may lie in bush, on rocks, or in a tree with their tails hanging below the treetops and giving them away.
Source: Encyclopedia of Life
Location: Panama
Species: Jaguarundi
Species Description:
__ The jaguarundi is one of the most unusual of the New World cat species, being in appearance more like a weasel or otter than a cat. The body is long and slender, with short legs, a small, flattened head, short, rounded ears, and a long tail. Unlike many other small South American cats, the coat lacks spots, but the jaguarundi is probably the most variable in color of all wild cats. The species occurs in two main color morphs: a dark morph, which is uniform black, brownish or grey in color, sometimes slightly lighter on the underparts, and a paler red morph, which may vary from tawny yellow to bright chestnut red. Individual hairs tend to be lighter on the base and the tip, giving some individuals a grizzled appearance. The jaguarundi is a vocal cat, with at least 13 distinct calls recorded, including a purr, whistle, scream, chatter, yap, and a bird-like "chirp." They inhabit a broad range of both open and closed habitats, including rainforest, swamp and savanna woodland, savanna, thickets, and semi-arid thorn scrub. Jaguarundis are known as very secretive animals. It was once believed that they were solitary except during the breeding season. Recent reports of pairs suggest that they may be more social than once thought. Pairs are often sighted in Paraguay, but individuals in Mexico are believed to be solitary. Some activity does occur at night, and they are often reported as being nocturnal and diurnal. Jaguarundis are terrestrial but are also good climbers and swimmers.
Source: Encyclopedia of Life
Location: Thailand
Species: Dhole
Species Description:
The Dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a species of canid native to Southeast Asia. It is the only extant member of the genus Cuon, which differs from Canis by the reduced number of molars and greater number of teats. The dholes are classed as endangered by the IUCN, due to ongoing habitat loss, depletion of its prey base, competition from other predators, persecution and possibly diseases from domestic and feral dogs. Along with African wild dogs, dholes are often referred to as "cat-like" canids, due to their long fine limbs and backbones. They have great jumping and leaping abilities, being able to jump 10-12 feet high, and leap 17-20 feet long distances in one leap with a running start. The dhole is a highly social animal, living in large clans which occasionally split up into small packs to hunt. It primarily preys on medium-sized ungulates, which it hunts by tiring them out in long chases, and kills by disemboweling them. Unlike most social canids (but similar to African wild dogs), dholes let their pups eat first at a kill. Though fearful of humans, dhole packs are bold enough to attack large and dangerous animals such as wild boar, and water buffalo. On some rare occasions, dholes may attack tigers. When confronted by dholes, tigers will seek refuge in trees or stand with their backs to a tree or bush, where they may be mobbed for lengthy periods before finally attempting escape. Escaping tigers are usually killed, while tigers which stand their ground have a greater chance of survival. Tigers are extremely dangerous opponents for dholes, as they have sufficient strength to kill a single dhole with one paw strike. Even a successful tiger kill is usually accompanied by losses to the pack. Dhole packs may steal leopard kills, while leopards may kill dholes if they encounter them singly or in pairs. Because leopards are smaller than tigers, and are more likely to hunt dholes, dhole packs tend to react more aggressively toward them than they do with tigers. It was once thought that dholes were a major factor in reducing Asiatic cheetah populations, though this is doubtful, as cheetahs live in open areas as opposed to forested areas favoured by dholes.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Malaysia
Species: Bornean Yellow Muntjac
Species Description:
Muntjac, also known as Barking Deer, are small deer of the genus Muntiacus. Muntjac are the oldest known deer, appearing 15-35 million years ago, with remains found in Miocene deposits in France, Germany and Poland. The Bornean yellow muntjac (Muntiacus atherodes) is restricted to the moist forests of Borneo where it lives alongside the common muntjac. It is similar to its much more common cousin and was only recently recognised as a separate species. Apart from the color difference, its antlers, which are just 7 cm (2.8 in) in length, are smaller than those of the common muntjac. It has not been extensively studied and has been described a relict species.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: China
Species: Wild Boa
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Location: China
Species: Snow Leopard
Location: Kenya
Species: Black-Backed Jackal
Species Description:
The Black-backed Jackal (Canis mesomelas), also known as the Silver-backed or Red Jackal, is a species of jackal which inhabits two areas of the African continent separated by roughly 900 km. One region includes the southern-most tip of the continent including South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe. The other area is along the eastern coastline, including Kenya, Somalia, and Ethiopia. The fossil record indicates that the species is the oldest extant member of the genus Canis. Although the most lightly built of jackals, it is the most aggressive, having been observed to singly kill animals many times its own size, and its intra-pack relationships are more quarrelsome. Black-backed jackals are small, foxlike canids which measure 38-48 cm in shoulder height and 68-74.5 cm in length. The tail measures 30-38 cm in length. Weight varies according to location; East African jackals weigh 15-30 pounds. Male jackals in Zimbabwe weigh 15-21 pounds, while females weigh 12-22 pounds. Black-backed jackals are omnivores, which feed on invertebrates such as beetles, grasshoppers, crickets, termites, millipedes, spiders and scorpions. They will also feed on mammals such as rodents, hares and young antelopes up to the size of topi calves. They will also feed on carrion, lizards, snakes. A pair of black-backed jackals in the Kalahari desert was observed to kill and devour a kori bustard and, on a separate occasion, a black mamba via prolonged harassment of the snake and crushing of the snake's head.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: China
Species: Bharal
Species Description:
The bharal, or Himalayan blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur, is a caprid found in the high Himalayas of Nepal, Tibet, China, India, Pakistan, and Bhutan. Blue Sheep possess a stocky body and stout legs, with robust shoulders and a broad chest. Their coats range from grayish brown to slate blue, hence the common name blue sheep. The blue tint of bharals makes them almost invisible against the background of blue-grayish rock that is typical within their habitat. Their hair is short and they lack a beard. There is a black stripe that separates the upper parts of the back from the white side. Their horns sweep up and out and then curve back before curling at the tip. Females resemble males except they have shorter horns and the stripe is gray instead of black. The bharal is a major food of the snow leopard.
Source: Wikepedia, Encyclopedia of Life
Location: China
Species: Tufted Deer
Species Description:
The tufted deer is a fairly dainty deer, named after the tuft of long, blackish-brown hair growing from the forehead. The antlers of male tufted deer are diminutive spikes, rarely protruding beyond the distinctive tuft of hair. Its body is a deep chocolate brown in color on the upperparts, white below, with the coat composed of coarse, almost spine-like hairs, which give the tufted deer a somewhat shaggy appearance. The head and neck are grey, with white markings highlighting the tips of the ears. The underside of the tail is also white and can be seen as the deer holds its tail up as it runs. Both male and female tufted deer have large, stout upper canines, with those of the male forming tusks up to 2.5 centimeters long. An inhabitant of mountainous forest, the tufted deer can be found between elevations of 300 and 4,750 meters, and is said to be always found near water. Like the white-tailed deer, the tufted deer has a tail with a white underside, which it points upward while feeding. When the deer runs, it lifts its tail, exposing the underside in a similar manner to that of the white-tailed deer. Tufted deer sometimes live in pairs, but are usually solitary. They bark when alarmed, which serves as a warning to others of their species in the area. They are territorial and do not tend to move far from their home territory. The bucks are known to fight over territory and mates, and their chief weapons are their elongated canines; their antlers are also used, but are not as dangerous. Tufted deer are crepuscular; they are shy during the day and more active during the evening and night.
Source: Encyclopedia of Life
Location: China
Species: Leopard Cat
Species Description:
__ The Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) is a small wild cat of Southeast Asia (south to Java and east to the Philippines), the Indian Subcontinent, eastern China, the Korean Peninsula and southeastern Russia. There are eleven subspecies of Leopard Cat, which differ widely in appearance. The Leopard Cat's name is derived from the leopard-like spots prevalent in all subspecies, but its relation to the leopard is distant, as the leopard is a member of a different genus, Panthera. The Leopard Cat has a wide geographic distribution, stretching from Pakistan to Borneo and Manchuria. It can be found in forest areas throughout Indonesia, a few islands in the Philippines, Borneo, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Bhutan, China, and Taiwan. The cat also can be found in Korea, Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. Their range of habitat is varied, and includes tropical forest, scrubland, pine forest, second-growth woodland, semi-desert, and agricultural regions, especially near water sources. On average, the Leopard Cat is as large as a Domestic Cat, but there are considerable regional differences. The fur color is also variable: it is yellow in the southern populations, but silver-grey in the northern ones. Leopard cats are skilful tree climbers, and sometimes hunt or rest in tree branches. It is also able to swim, but will seldom do so. This cat is nocturnal, and during the day it spends its time in dens that may be hollow trees, cavities under roots, or caves. It spends time outside during the day in areas where there are no humans. The Leopard Cat is solitary, except during breeding season, and produces a similar range of vocalisations to the domestic cat. Leopard cats are carnivorous, and feed on variety of small prey, including mammals, lizards, amphibians, birds, and insects. In most parts of their range, small rodents such as rats and mice form the major part of their diet. The Northern subspecies of Leopard Cat also eat hares. The diet is often supplemented with grass, eggs, poultry, and aquatic prey. Leopard cats are active hunters, dispatching their prey with a rapid pounce and bite. Unlike many other small cats, they do not "play" with their food, maintaining a tight grip with their claws until the animal is dead. This may be related to the relatively high proportion of birds in their diet, which are more likely to escape when released than are rodents.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: China
Species: Crested Serpent Eagle
Species Description:
__ The Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela) is a medium-sized bird of prey that is found in forested habitats across tropical Asia. All members within the species complex have a large looking head with feathers on their head giving them a maned and crested appearance. The face is bare and yellow joining up with the ceres and powerful feet are unfeathered and heavily scaled. They forage over the forest canopy with their wings and tail showing broad white and black bars and often call with a piercing and familiar three or two-note call. They often feed on snakes, giving them their name and are placed along with the Circaetus snake-eagles in the subfamily Circaetinae. This large, dark brown eagle is stocky, with rounded wings and a short tail. Its short black and white fan-shaped crest gives it a thick-necked appearance. The bare facial skin and feet are yellow. The underside is spotted with white and yellowish-brown. When perched the wing tips do not reach until the tail tip. In soaring flight, the broad and paddle-shaped wings are held in a shallow V. The tail and underside of the flight feathers are black with broad white bars. Young birds show a lot of white on the head. It is found mainly over areas with thick vegetation both on the low hills and the plains. This species is a resident species, but in some parts of their range they are found only in summer.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Peru
Species: Short-Eared Dog
Species Description:
__ The short-eared dog (Atelocynus microtis), also known as the short-eared fox or the short-eared zorro, is a unique and elusive canid species endemic to the Amazonian basin. This is the only species assigned to the genus Atelocynus. It has many names in the indigenous languages where it is endemic, such as: cachorro-do-mato-de-orelha-curta in Portuguese, zorro de oreja corta in Spanish, nomensarixi in the Chiquitano language, and ualaca in Yucuna. Other names in Spanish are zorro ojizarco, zorro sabanero, zorro negro. The short-eared dog has short and slender limbs with short and rounded ears. The short-eared dog has a distinctive fox-like muzzle and bushy tail. It ranges from dark to reddish-grey, but can also be nearly navy blue, coffee brown, dark grey or chestnut-grey until to black, and the coat is short, with thick and bristly fur. Its paws are partly webbed, owing to its partly aquatic habitat. It moves with feline lightness unparalleled among the other canids. It has a somewhat narrow chest, with dark color variation on thorax merging to brighter, more reddish tones on the abdominal side of the body. This species possesses a large elongated head and long canine teeth, protruding even when its muzzle is closed. Its back often has a dark streak, while a brighter stain is on its tail. Like all canids, it has 42 teeth. Typical height at the shoulder is 25-30 cm. Its head and body length is about 100 cm, with a tail of about 30-35 cm. It weighs about 9-10 kg. This wild dog is mainly a carnivore, with fish, insects, and small mammals making up the majority of its diet. An investigation led in Cocha Cashu Biological Station in Peru into the proportions of different kinds of food in this animal's diet produced the following results: fish 28%, insects 17%, small mammals 13%, various fruits 10%, crabs 10%, frogs 4%, reptiles 3%, birds 10%. This species has some unique behaviors not typical to other canids. Females of this species are about almost 1/3 larger than males. The excited male sprays a musk produced by the tail glands. It prefers a solitary lifestyle, in forest areas. It avoids humans in the natural environment. Agitated males will raise the hairs on their backs. Lifespan and gestation period are unknown, although it is assumed that sexual maturity is reached at about one year of age.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: China
Species: Red Panda
Species Description:
__ The classification of the red panda has caused continued controversy since it was first described in 1825, due to similarities with both the bear family and the procyonids such as racoons. Today it is placed with the racoons, but in its own separate subfamily, the Ailurinae. The lustrous coat is a rich reddish brown colour on the back and black on the legs; longer coarse guard hairs cover the dense woolly undercoat, which provides warmth. The coat provides effective camouflage amongst the trees where branches are often swathed in reddish-brown moss. The face is rounded and predominantly white with reddish brown 'tear marks' running from the corner of each eye to the mouth. The long bushy tail is marked with 12 alternating red and buff rings and the soles of the feet are covered with thick white hair to provide warmth. Currently two subspecies of the red panda exist; Ailurus fulgens fulgens is smaller and lighter (especially in the facial region) than the related A. f. styani. Like the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), red pandas also posses a modified wrist bone that acts as a sixth digit or thumb, although it is smaller than that of the better-known giant panda. Red pandas have a wide range of vocalisations, the most peculiar of which is a 'quack-snort'. Red pandas live in temperate climates in deciduous and coniferous forests. There is usually an understory of bamboo and hollow trees. The average temperature is 10 to 25 degrees Celsius, and the average annual rainfall is 350 centimeters. Red pandas exhibit several visual displays during intraspecific interactions, including arching the tail and back, the slow raising and lowering of the head while emitting a low intensity puffing, turning the head while jaw-clapping, shaking the head from side to side, a bipedal posture with forelegs extended above the head, and staring.
Source: Encyclopedia of Life
Location: China
Species: Sambar
Location: Kenya
Species: Black Rhinoceros
Species Description:
__ The Black Rhinoceros or Hook-lipped Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), is a species of rhinoceros, native to the eastern and central areas of Africa including Kenya, Tanzania, Cameroon, South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe, and Angola. Although the Rhino is referred to as black, it is actually more of a grey/brown/white color in appearance. The other African rhinoceros is the White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). These common names are misleading, as those two species are not really distinguishable by color. The word white in the name "White Rhinoceros" is a mistranslation of the Dutch word wijd for wide, referring to its square upper lip, as opposed to the pointed or hooked lip of the Black Rhinoceros. These species are now sometimes referred to as the Square-lipped (for White) or Hook-lipped (for Black) Rhinoceros. An adult Black Rhinoceros stands 55-67 inches high at the shoulder and is 11-12 feet in length. An adult weighs from 1,800 to 3,100 lbs. The females are smaller than the males. Two horns on the skull are made of keratin with the larger front horn typically 20 inches long, exceptionally up to 55 inches. Sometimes, a third smaller horn may develop. These horns are used for defense, intimidation, and digging up roots and breaking branches during feeding. The longest known horn measured nearly 4.9 feet in length. The Black Rhinoceros has been pushed to the brink of extinction by illegal poaching for their horn, and to a lesser extent by loss of habitat. A major market for rhino horn has historically been in the Middle East to make ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers called jambiyas. Demand for these exploded in the 1970s causing the Black Rhinoceros population to decline 96% between 1970 and 1992. The horn is also used in traditional Chinese medicine, and is said by herbalists to be able to revive comatose patients, cure fevers, and aid male sexual stamina and fertility.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Thailand
Species: Sun Bear
Location: China
Species: Blood Pheasant
Species Desscription:
This relatively small, short-tailed pheasant is widespread and fairly common in northern Southasia. Blood pheasants are the size of a small fowl, about 17 in (43 cm) in length with a short convex, very strong black bill, feathered between bill and eye, and a small crest of various coloured feathers. The colour of the plumage above is dark ash, with white shafts, the coverts of the wings various tinged with green, with broad strokes of white through the length of each feather, the feathers of the chin deep crimson; on the breast, belly and sides feathers are lance-shaped, of various length, the tips green with crimson margins, collectively resembling dashes of blood scattered on the breast and belly. The tail consists of twelve sub-equal feathers, shafts white, rounded, the ends whitish, the coverts a rich crimson red. Both males and females have red feet and a distinct ring of bare skin around the eye that typically is crimson colored, but is orange in a few subspecies. Females are more uniformly colored, being overall dull brown and often with some gray to the nape. Blood pheasants live in the mountains of Nepal, Sikkim, northern Myanmar, Tibet, and central and south-central China, where they prefer coniferous or mixed forests and scrub areas near the snowline. They move their range depending on the seasons, and are found at higher elevations during the summer. With snow increasing in fall and winter they move to lower elevations.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Peru
Species: Margay
Location: Kenya
Species: Gerenuk
Species Description:
The Gerenuk (Litocranius walleri), also known as the Waller's Gazelle, is a long-necked species of antelope found in dry bushy scrub and steppe in East Africa. The word Gerenuk comes from the Somali language, meaning "giraffe-necked", and leads to another common name, the Giraffe-necked Antelope. It is the only member of the genus Litocranius. Gerenuks have a small head for their body, but their eyes and ears are big. Unlike females, males have horns and a more muscular neck. They are brown on their back, and lighter underneath. They have short, black tails. From head to tail, the gerenuk is around 150 cm long. Males are a little taller than females, ranging from 89-105 cm, and the females are 80-100 cm. The male is also heavier than the female, weighing at 45 kg, and females are 30 kg. Gerenuks eat food from higher places than most other gazelles and antelopes. They do this by standing up on their hind legs, and stretching out their long necks to get food off of tall bushes or small trees. Most of their diet is made up of tender leaves and shoots of prickly bushes and trees, but also includes buds, flowers, fruit, and climbing plants. Gerenuks do not need to drink, because they get enough water from the plants they eat. Because of this, they can survive in their dry habitat.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Peru
Species: Jaguar
Species Description:
__ The jaguar is the largest cat of the Americas and a formidable predator. Its common name comes from the native Indian name "yaguara," meaning "a beast that kills its prey with one bound," and its power is clearly displayed by its muscular build, deep chest, large head, broad muzzle, and strong jaws. This remarkable cat possesses a visually striking coat of large black rosettes, mostly enclosing dark spots, set against golden brown to yellow fur, which pales to white on the cheeks, throat and underside. Melanistic forms are also relatively common, often called "black panthers" in the Americas. Jaguars prefer dense, tropical moist lowland forests that offer plenty of cover, although they are also found in scrubland, reed thickets, coastal forests, swamps, and thickets. Jaguars are excellent swimmers and are generally found in habitats near water, such as rivers, slow moving streams, lagoons, watercourses, and swamps. They are not typically found in arid areas. In northern Mexico and southwestern United States, jaguars are found in oak woodlands, mesquite thickets, and riparian woodlands. Jaguars stalk their prey on the ground, preferring thick vegetation for cover. Jaguars are also able to climb trees for safety or to hunt. Jaguars require three habitat characteristics to support healthy populations: a water supply, dense cover, and sufficient prey. They are most active near dusk and dawn, although they may be active at any time of the day. They tend to rest mid-morning and afternoon. Jaguars lay in deep shade, under thick vegetation, in caves, or under large rocks when resting. They also rest near river banks and may be forced to rest in trees during flood seasons. The big cats are solitary with the exception of mating season, when males travel with females in estrus. Population densities may be as high as 1 animal per 15 square kilometers in the best of habitats.
Source: Encyclopedia of Life
**Location: Thailand
Species: Barking Deer
Species Description: **Muntjac, also known as Barking Deer, are small deer of the genus Muntiacus. Muntjac are the oldest known deer, appearing 15-35 million years ago, with remains found in Miocene deposits in France, Germany and Poland. The present-day species are native to South Asia and can be found from Sri Lanka to southern China, Taiwan, Japan (Boso Peninsula and Oshima Island), India and Indonesian islands. They are also found in the eastern Himalayas and in Burma. Inhabiting tropical regions, the deer have no seasonal rut and mating can take place at any time of year; this behaviour is retained by populations introduced to temperate countries. Males have short antlers, which can regrow, but they tend to fight for territory with their "tusks" (downward-pointing canine teeth).
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Kenya
Species: African Bush Elephant
Species Description:
The African Bush Elephant (Loxodonta africana) is the larger of the two species of African elephant. Both it and the African Forest Elephant have usually been classified as a single species, known simply as the African Elephant. It is also known as the Bush Elephant. The African Elephant is the largest living terrestrial animal, normally reaching 20 to 24 feet in length and 11.5 to 13 feet in height at the head, and weighing between 13,000 to 20,000 pounds. The largest on record, shot in Angola in 1965, was a bull weighing 27,060 lb and standing 13.8 feet high, the body of which is now mounted in the rotunda of the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C.. The Bush Elephant normally moves at a rate of 4 mph, but it can reach a top speed of 25 mph when scared or upset.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Panama
Species: White-nosed Coati
Species Description:
White-nosed Coatis are the most diurnal members of the family Procyonidae. They often sleep curled up in trees, and come down at dawn to forage, rooting with their long, mobile snouts and digging with long, curved claws for insects, larvae, eggs, and small vertebrates. Adult males often live alone, but females and young coatis travel together in bands, vocalizing and grooming each other. They do not hunt cooperatively or share food, but they join forces to defend against male coatis and other intruders. Females raise their young alone, in a nest. Mortality can be high when the young first leave the nest, from predators--including male coatis, big cats, monkeys, and boa constrictors--and accidents and disease. White-nosed coatis will occupy many different types of habitat, from tropical lowlands to dry, high-altitude forests. Adult males are sometimes active at night, but coatis are primarily diurnal. Days are spent mostly on the ground foraging, while nights are spent in treetops, sheltered from most predation. Males live solitary lives and establish ranges that they mark by spraying urine or dragging their abdomens on a surface and spreading anal secretions. Male ranges do not overlap, and they will fight when they meet another male. Bands of 4-20 individuals include males up to two years of age and females, who are not necessarily related. These groups are beneficial for many reasons, including protection of the young from predators. Grooming and nursing comes from both the mother of the young and other females equally.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Peru
Species: Giant Armadillo
Species Description:
The Giant Armadillo (Priodontes maximus) is the largest living species of armadillo. It was once found widely throughout the tropical forests of eastern South America and now ranges throughout varied habitat as far south as northern Argentina. This species is considered vulnerable to extinction. These armadillos typically weigh around 62 lbs. when fully grown, but a 71 lb. specimen has been weighed in the wild. A typical length is 35 inches, of which a third to two-fifths is likely to be accounted for by the tail. The Giant Armadillo prefers termites and some ants as prey, and often consumes the entire population of a termite mound. It has been known to also prey upon worms, larvae and larger creatures, as spiders and snakes, also plants.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Thailand
Species: Gaur
Species Description:
The gaur is a large, dark-coated forest ungulate of South Asia and Southeast Asia. The largest populations are found today in India. The gaur belongs to the Bovinae subfamily, which also includes bison, domestic cattle, yak and water buffalo. The gaur is the largest species of wild cattle, bigger than the African buffalo, the extinct aurochs (the ancestor of domestic cattle), wild water buffalo or bison. Gaur are said to look like water buffalo at the front and domestic cattle at the back. They are the heaviest and most powerful of all wild cattle, and are among the largest living land animals; only elephants, rhinos and hippos consistently grow larger, and the weight of gaur may equal or even surpass that of a giraffe. Due to their formidable size and power, gaur have few natural enemies. leopards, and dhole packs occasionally attack unguarded calves or unhealthy animals, but only the tiger and the saltwater crocodile have been reported to kill a full-grown adult. On the other hand, there are several cases of tigers being killed by gaur. In one instance, a tiger was repeatedly gored and trampled to death by a gaur during a prolonged battle. Gaur herds are led by an old adult female (the matriarch). Adult males may be solitary. During the peak of the breeding season, unattached males wander widely in search of receptive females. No serious fighting between males has been recorded, with size being the major factor in determining dominance. In some regions in India where human disturbance is minor, the gaur is very timid and shy. When alarmed, gaur crash into the jungle at a surprising speed. However, in Southeast Asia and south India, where they are used to the presence of humans, gaur are said by locals to be very bold and aggressive. They are frequently known to go into fields and graze alongside domestic cattle, sometimes killing them in fights. Gaur bulls may charge unprovoked, especially during summer, when the heat and parasitic insects make them more short-tempered than usual._
Source: Wikipedia_
Location: Kenya
Species: Giraffe
Species Description:
The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all extant land-living animal species, and the largest ruminant. Its scientific name, which is similar to its archaic English name of camelopard, refers to its irregular patches of color on a light background, which bear a token resemblance to a leopard's spots. The average mass for an adult male giraffe is 2,600 pounds while the average mass for an adult female is 1,800 lbs. It is approximately 14 feet to 17 feet tall, although the tallest male recorded stood almost 20 feet. The giraffe is related to other even-toed ungulates, such as deer and cattle, but is placed in a separate family, the Giraffidae, consisting of only the giraffe and its closest relative, the okapi, and their extinct relatives. Its range extends from Chad in Central Africa to South Africa. Giraffes usually inhabit savannas, grasslands, or open woodlands. However, when food is scarce they will venture into areas with denser vegetation. They prefer areas with plenty of acacia growth. They will drink large quantities of water when available, which enables them to live for extended periods in arid areas. The giraffe's fur may serve as a chemical defence, and is full of antibiotics and parasite repellents that gives the animal a characteristic scent. Old males are sometimes nicknamed "stink bulls". The giraffe has one of the shortest sleep requirements of any mammal, which averages 4.6 hours per 24 hours.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Peru
Species: South American Tapir
Species Description:
__ One of the most distinguishing features of tapirs is their long, flexible proboscis, formed from the upper lip and nose, which is used to strip leaves and pluck fruits. This bristly-coated tapir varies in color from dark brown to greyish-brown, generally with a dark underside and legs, and lighter cheeks, throat and ear tips. Newborn tapirs have a dark brown coat with white spots and stripes, which provide good camouflage. A prominent, erect mane sits on top of the crest and extends from the forehead to the shoulders. The crest running from the top of the head down the back of the neck is much more pronounced than in other tapir species, giving it a stockier appearance. Found in moist, lowland rainforests where water is present, but habitat association varies extensively. Seasonal movements to higher elevations during the rainy season have been reported in some areas. During the daylight hours, the Brazilian tapir remains hidden in forests and thick brush. At night this animal emerges to feed in grassland or scrubland. The daily movements of the tapirs produce well-worn paths that are used by hunters to track these animals. The tapir takes regular waterbaths and mudbaths which are thought to help it rid itself of ectoparasites. Tapirus terrestris is generally solitary, and is only found in groups during the mating season. Males tend to urinate regulary in particular spots; this may be a form of communication with conspecifics. They may also posses facial glands used to scent mark. Tapirus terrestris exhibits a Flehmen response when it picks up the scent of Vocalizations include a shrill call, used to convey fear, pain, and appeasement, a click that may be used to identify conspecifics, and a snort that signifies aggression. Vocalizations include a shrill call, used to convey fear, pain, and appeasement, a click that may be used to identify conspecifics, and a snort that signifies aggression.
Source: Encyclopedia of Life
Location: Kenya
Species: Impala
Species Description:
__ The graceful impala is a noisy antelope renowned for its agile leaps. It has reddish-brown upperparts becoming paler on the sides. The underparts, belly, throat and chin are white, as is the tail, which has a thin, black line down its centre. A black line also extends down each buttock. At the back of the hind leg, just above the hoof, is a characteristic tuft of black hair, which covers the fetlock gland. A high kick sends out a puff of scent from the gland, which is thought to be used to lay trails and help regroup herds. Males have lyre-shaped horns, up to 0.7 meters long and deeply ringed for most of their length. At certain times of the year, guttural roars followed by a series of snorts can be heard as the males advertise their territories. The impala is found in woodland which contains little undergrowth and low to medium height grassland. Also a close source of water is desired, however is not needed when there is abundance of grass. They are diurnal and spend the night ruminating and lying down. The peak activity times for social activity and herd movement are shortly after dawn and before dusk. The male impala changes its territory to match the season. During the breeding season the male keeps a much smaller territory which is heavily defended. The males will imprint on their original territory and always come back to that same territory to declare dominance. The male impala uses a variety of techniques to defend its territory (including keeping females). Tail-raising, forehead marking, forehead rubbing, herding, chsing, erect posture, fighting, and roaring are used.
Source: Wikipedia
**Location: Thailand
Species: Silver Pheasant
Species Description: **The Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera) is a species of pheasant found in forests, mainly in mountains, of mainland Southeast Asia, and eastern and southern China, with introduced populations in Hawaii and various locations in the US mainland. The male is black and white, while the female is mainly brown. Both genders have a bare red face and red legs (the latter separating it from the greyish-legged Kalij Pheasant).[2] It is common in aviculture, and overall also remains common in the wild, but some of its subspecies (notably whiteheadi from Hainan, engelbachi from southern Laos, and annamensis from southern Vietnam) are rare and threatened This is a relatively large pheasant, with males of the largest subspecies having a total length of 47 to 49 inches, including a tail of up to 30 inches, while the males of the smallest subspecies barely reach 28 inches in total length, including a tail of about 12 inches. Females of all subspecies are significantly smaller than their respective males, with the largest only reaching about 28 inches in total length. Males of the northern subspecies, which are the largest, have white upperparts and tail (most feathers with some black markings), while their underparts and crest are glossy bluish-black. The males of the southern subspecies have greyer upperparts and tail with extensive black markings, making them appear far darker than the northern subspecies. The adult male plumage is reached in the second year. Females are brown and shorter-tailed than the males. Females of some subspecies have whitish underparts strongly patterned with black, and in whiteheadi this extends to the upper mantle.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Kenya
Species: Aardwolf
Location: China
Species: Giant Panda
**Location: China
Species: Snow Partridge
**
Location: China
Species: Asian Black Bear
Location: Peru
Species: Giant Armadillo
Location: Kenya
Species: Klipspringer
Species Description:
This fascinating small antelope has a number of distinct features that make it well adapted to its rugged, rocky habitat. It is unique amongst the antelope for walking on the tips of its hooves and it has a remarkable dense, coarse coat consisting of hollow hairs that rustle when shaken or touched. When the klipspringer is hot or sick its fur stands erect, giving the illusion of being much larger than it actually is. In most areas only the males have horns, which are short, widely-spaced apart and ringed near the base; in the Ethiopian, Ugandan and Tanzanian populations some females may have horns too. Klipspringers live in steep, rocky terrain and are most common in mountain ranges and gorges of major rivers. They are abundant in suitable habitat (as many as 45 animals per square kilometer), but they are patchily distributed among outcroppings of rock. Klipspringers form territorial, tightly knit, monogamous pairs that share a permanent home range. The mean group size is 2.6; most groups are male-female pairs or family groups of a pair and the young of the year. Single klipspringers generally make up less than 10% of the population and are almost always unmated males. Pairs maintain proximity, and the male typically stands guard while the female forages and cares for the young. During the dry season, when resources are scarce, pairs will congregate into small groups of 6-8 individuals. These groups dissolve into pairs once food becomes abundant.
Source: Encyclopedia of Life
Location: Panama
Species: Tayra & Kinkajou
Species Descriptions
: The** tayra** (Eira barbara), also known as the Tolomuco or Perico ligero in Central America, and San Hol or viejo de monte in the Yucatan Peninsula [2] is an omnivorous animal from the weasel family Mustelidae. It is the only species in the genus Eira. There are at least nine known subspecies. Tayras have an appearance similar to weasels and martens, growing to a size of about 60 cm, not including a 45 cm long tail. Most tayras have either dark brown or black fur with a lighter patch on its chest Tayras live in the tropical forests of Central America, South America and on the island of Trinidad. They eat mainly fruit, but also carrion, small mammals, reptiles, and birds. They live in hollow trees, burrows in the ground, or nests of tall grass. They travel both alone and in groups during both the day and the night. Tayras are expert climbers, and can leap from treetop to treetop when pursued. They can also run fast and swim well. Tayras will eat most anything, hunting rodents and invertebrates, and climbing trees to get eggs and honey. They are attracted to fruit and can be found raiding orchards. Tayras are playful and easily tamed. Indigenous people, who often refer to the tayra as "cabeza del viejo", or old man's head, due to their wrinkled facial skin, have kept them as household pets to control vermin.
Source: Wikipedia
**
Kinkajou** - The kinkajou (Potos flavus), also known as the honey bear (a name it shares with the sun bear), is a rainforest mammal of the family Procyonidae related to olingos, coatis, raccoons, and the ringtail and cacomistle. It is the only member of the genus Potos. Kinkajous may be mistaken for ferrets or monkeys, but are not related. Native to Central America and South America, this arboreal mammal is not an endangered species, though it is seldom seen by people because of its strict nocturnal habits. However, they are hunted for the pet trade, for their fur (to make wallets and horse saddles) and for their meat. The species has been included in Appendix III of CITES by Honduras, which means that exports from Honduras require an export permit and exports from other countries require a certificate of origin or re-export. They can live to be 23 years old in captivity. Although the kinkajou is classified in the order Carnivora and has sharp teeth, its omnivorous diet consists mainly of fruit. Kinkajous particularly enjoy figs. Studies have shown that 90% of their diet consists of (primarily ripe) fruit. To eat softer fruits they hold it with their forepaws, then scoop out the succulent pulp with their tongue. They may play an important role in seed dispersal. Leaves and flowers make up much of the other 10% of their diet.[4] They sometimes eat insects, particularly ants. It has been suggested, without direct evidence, that they may occasionally eat bird eggs and small vertebrates. Like raccoons, kinkajous' remarkable manipulatory abilities rival those of primates. The kinkajou has a short-haired, fully prehensile tail (like some New World monkeys), which it uses as a "fifth hand" in climbing. It does not use its tail for grasping food. Scent glands near the mouth, on the throat, and on the belly allow kinkajous to mark their territory and their travel routes. Kinkajous sleep in family units and groom one another. While they are usually solitary when foraging, they occasionally forage in small groups, and sometimes associate with olingos (which are also frugivorous). A nocturnal animal, the kinkajou's peak activity is usually between about 7:00 PM and midnight, and again an hour before dawn. During daylight hours, kinkajous sleep in tree hollows or in shaded tangles of leaves, avoiding direct sunlight. Kinkajous breed throughout the year, giving birth to one or occasionally two small babies after a gestation period of 112 to 118 day Kinkajous are sometimes kept as exotic pets. They are playful, generally quiet, docile, and have little odor. However, they can occasionally be aggressive.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: China
Species:
Beech Marten
Species Description:
The Beech Marten (Martes foina), also known as the Stone Marten, is the most common species of marten in Central Europe. Beech martens are long, slender, short-legged mustelid predators with long, bushy tails. They grow to a size of 40 to 50 cm in body length and weigh up to two kilograms. Their brown coats have a forked white marking at the throat, which distinguishes them in appearance from the Pine Marten whose throat marking is cream-coloured and more rounded. Beech martens frequently live in areas of human settlement, often in attic spaces, but can also be found in the countryside, although they avoid areas where there is no cover. They inhabit the whole of mainland Europe as well as Western and Central Asia. Beech martens sleep in cover during the day, and hunt for food in the twilight. They are omnivores and their diet includes smaller mammals, earthworms, small to medium-sized birds, eggs, and fruit. In turn, they are sometimes preyed upon by raptors such as (among feral populations in North America) the Golden Eagle, and larger predators such as wolves or lynxes. The release of pet martens has led to the establishment of a breeding colony in Wisconsin, U.S.A.
Source: Encyclopedia of Life/Wikipedia
Location: Peru
Species: Short-Eared Dog
Location: China
Species: Koklass Pheasant
Species Description:
The Koklass (Pucrasia macrolopha) is a species of the Pheasant family, Phasianidae, and is the only species in the genus Pucrasia. Koklass Pheasant is a monotypic species of genus Pucrasia with nine subspecies recognized so far. The Koklass is a medium sized elusive bird confined to high altitude forests from Afghanistan to central Nepal, and in northeastern Tibet to northern and eastern China. Upper parts of male Koklass are covered with silver-grey plumage streaked velvety-black down the centre of each feather, and it has the unique feature of a black head, chestnut breast and prominent white patches on the sides of neck. The females differ from males in above characters and instead their upper parts are covered with pale brown plumage. Both sexes, however, have distinct elongated tails tipped with pale feathers. Like the Western Tragopan, it does not extend its range above the tree line. One of the less colourful pheasants, the Koklass exhibits moderate sexual dimorphism. Though they skulk under bushes, which makes direct sighting difficult, they give loud chorus/predawn calls during the breeding season and during autumn, revealing their presence. They remain in pairs or small family groups throughout the year. They nest on the ground and spend the nights roosting on trees, or under rock overhangs.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Panama
Species: Ocelot
Location: Kenya
Species: Cape Hare
Species Description:
The Cape hare is native to non-forested areas of Africa, including one population in the south and a distinct one in the Sahel and Sahara. It is also widespread through parts of the Middle East and Central Asia Cape hares have a slender body with a bushy tail. The oval-shaped head has very long (12 to 14 cm), black-tipped ears and large, reddish-brown eyes. This species also has very long and powerful hind legs. These hares have have ginger-brown fur with shades of black on the upper parts, a more ginger-colored breast and sides, with white inner sides of the legs and belly, and reddish-gray hair on the nape of the neck. This species is found in open land, such as meadows, pastures, cultivated fields, sandy moors, and marshes, close to hedges, thickets, and forests. Lepus capensis inhabits bioclimatic regions that are temperate and humid, hot and dry, and can be found in barren and extreme arid deserts.
Source: Encyclopedia of Life
Location: Kenya
Species: Zebra & Giraffe
Species Description:
Zebras are African equids best known for their distinctive black and white stripes. Their stripes come in different patterns unique to each individual. They are generally social animals that live in small harems to large herds. Unlike their closest relatives, horses and asses, zebras have never been truly domesticated. There are three species of zebras: the plains zebra, the Grevy's zebra and the mountain zebra. The plains zebra and the mountain zebra belong to the subgenus Hippotigris, but Grevy's zebra is the sole species of subgenus Dolichohippus. The latter resembles an ass, to which it is closely related, while the former two are more horse-like. All three belong to the genus Equus, along with other living equids. The unique stripes of zebras make these among the animals most familiar to people. They occur in a variety of habitats, such as grasslands, savannas, woodlands, thorny scrublands, mountains, and coastal hills. However, various anthropogenic factors have had a severe impact on zebra populations, in particular hunting for skins and habitat destruction. Grevy's zebra and the mountain zebra are endangered. While plains zebras are much more plentiful, one subspecies, the quagga, went extinct in the late 19th century. It was previously believed that zebras were white animals with black stripes, since some zebras have white underbellies. Embryological evidence, however, shows that the animal's background color is black and the white stripes and bellies are additions. The stripes are typically vertical on the head, neck, forequarters, and main body, with horizontal stripes at the rear and on the legs of the animal. The "zebra crossing" is named after the zebra's black and white stripes. It has been suggested that the stripes serve as visual cues and identification. With each striping pattern unique to each individual, zebras can recognize one another by their stripes. Others believe that the stripes act as a camouflage mechanism. This is accomplished in several ways. First, the vertical striping helps the zebra hide in grass. While seeming absurd at first glance, considering that grass is neither white nor black, it is supposed to be effective against the zebra's main predator, the lion, which is color blind[dubious - discuss]. Theoretically, a zebra standing still in tall grass may not be noticed at all by a lion. Additionally, since zebras are herd animals, the stripes may help to confuse predators - a number of zebras standing or moving close together may appear as one large animal, making it more difficult for the lion to pick out any single zebra to attack. A more recent theory, supported by experiment, posits that the disruptive colouration is also an effective means of confusing the visual system of the blood-sucking tsetse fly. Alternative theories include that the stripes coincide with fat patterning beneath the skin, serving as a thermoregulatory mechanism for the zebra, and that wounds sustained disrupt the striping pattern to clearly indicate the fitness of the animal to potential mates.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: China
Species: Wild Boar
**Location: Kenya
Species: Caracal
Species Description: **The caracal is a fiercely territorial medium-sized cat ranging over Western Asia and Africa. Although it has traditionally had the alternative names Persian Lynx, Egyptian Lynx and African Lynx, it is no longer considered to be an actual lynx. Instead, it is now believed to be closely related to the African golden cat and the serval. The caracal is classified as a small cat, yet is amongst the heaviest of all small cats, as well as the quickest, being nearly as fast as the serval. The caracal is a slender, yet muscular, cat, with long legs and a short tail. Males typically weigh 13 to 18 kilograms (29 to 40 lb), while females weigh about 11 kilograms (24 lb). The caracal resembles a Eurasian Lynx, and for a long time it was considered a close relative of the lynxes. It has a tail nearly a third of its body length, and both sexes look the same. Compared to lynxes, it has longer legs, shorter fur, and a slimmer appearance. The color of the fur varies between wine-red, grey, or sand-colored. Melanistic (black) caracals also occur. Young caracals bear reddish spots on the underside; adults do not have markings except for black spots above the eyes and small white patches around the eyes and nose. Underparts of chin and body are white, and a narrow black line runs from the corner of the eye to the nose. Caracals hunt by stalking their prey, approaching within about 5 meters (16 ft) before suddenly sprinting and leaping. They kill smaller prey with a bite to the nape of the neck, and larger animals by biting the throat and then raking with their claws. Caracals sometimes cover their larger prey if they cannot consume the whole carcass in a single meal, and return to it later. Some have even been observed to hide carcasses in trees. It is best known for its spectacular skill at hunting birds, able to snatch a bird in flight, sometimes more than one at a time. It can jump and climb exceptionally well, which enables it to catch hyraxes better than probably any other carnivore. If no cover is available in which to conceal itself, a caracal may flatten itself against the ground and remain motionless, allowing its coat color to act as camouflage.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Thailand
Species: Large Indian Civet
Species Description:
The Large Indian Civet (Viverra zibetha) is a member of the Viverrid family native to Southeast Asia. In 2008, the IUCN classified the species as Near Threatened, mainly because of the known heavy trade as wild meat. Large Indian civets are generally grizzled greyish brown, with white and black bars along their neck, usually two white stripes and three black stripes on the tail, and a white muzzle. The hair on their back is longer. Their claws are retractable. They have hair in between their paw pads. The large Indian civet ranges from Nepal, northeast India, Bhutan to Myanmar, Thailand, the Malay peninsula and Singapore to Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and China. Large Indian civets are mostly carnivorous. They eat birds, frogs, snakes, small mammals, eggs, crabs, and fish, but also fruit and roots. Large Indian civets are solitary and nocturnal. They spend most of their time on the ground, though they are agile climbers. During the day, they sleep in burrows in the ground that have been dug by other animals and abandoned. They are territorial and mark their territories with excretions from their anal glands. Their territory can range from 1.7 to 5.4 km. Females breed at any time of the year, and generally have two litters a year. A litter usually consists of four young. They are born in a hole in the ground or in dense vegetation. They open their eyes at 10 days and are weaned at one month of age.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Peru
Species: Bush Dog
Species Description:
__ The Bush Dog is a canid found in Central and South America, including Panama, Colombia (West of the Andes), Venezuela, Bolivia, Peru , Ecuador, the Guianas, Paraguay, northeast Argentina (Misiones province), and Brazil (from the Amazon rainforest to the state of Amazonas). In spite of its extensive range, it is very rare; it was first identified by scientists as fossils in Brazilian caves and believed by them to be extinct. It is the only living species in its genus, Speothos. The Bush Dog (Speothos Venaticus) has soft long brownish-tan fur, with a lighter reddish tinge on the head, neck and back and a bushy tail, while the underside is dark, sometimes with a lighter throat patch. Adults typically have 22-30 inches of head and body, plus 5 inches of tail, and weigh 11-15 lb. Legs and snout are short relative to body length: the typical height is only 10-12 in. It is a carnivore and hunts during the day, preferably in wet savannahs and tropical and equatorial forests. Its typical prey is the Paca (Cuniculus paca), a large rodent. Although it can hunt alone on occasion, the Bush Dog is usually found in small packs of up to 10-12 individuals, which can bring down much larger prey. It may be the most gregarious of the South American canid species. Bush Dogs have skin growing between their toes, which allow them to swim more efficiently. It uses hollow logs and cavities (e.g. armadillo burrows) for shelter. Pack-mates keep in contact with frequent whines, perhaps because visibility is poor in the undergrowth where the animal typically hunts.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Kenya
Species: Vulterine Guineafowl
Species Description:
__ The Vulturine Guineafowl (Acryllium vulturinum) is the largest extant guineafowl species. Systematically, Acryllium are only distantly related to other guineafowl genera. Their closest living relative, the White Breasted Guineafowl, Agelastes meleagrides inhabit primary forests in Central Africa. bird family, Numididae, and is the only member of the genus Acryllium. It is a resident breeder in northeast Africa, from southern Ethiopia through Kenya and just into northern Tanzania. Vulturine Guineafowl is a large (61-71 cm) bird with a round body and small head. It is longer in the wings, neck, legs and tail than other guineafowl. The adult has a bare blue face and black neck, and although all other guineafowl have unfeathered heads, this species looks particularly like a vulture because of the long bare neck and head. Vulturine Guineafowl is a gregarious species, forming flocks outside the breeding season typically of about 25 birds. This species' food is seeds and small invertebrates. This guineafowl is terrestrial, and will run rather than fly when alarmed. Despite the open habitat, it tends to keep to cover, and roosts in trees. It makes loud chink-chink-chink-chink-chink calls. It breeds in dry and open habitats with scattered bushes and trees, such as savannah or grassland. It lays its usually 4-8 cream-colored eggs in a well-hidden grass-lined scrape.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Kenya
Species: Steenbok
Species Description:
__ The Steenbok, Raphicerus campestris, is a common small antelope of southern and eastern Africa. It is sometimes known as the Steinbuck or Steinbok. There are two distinct clusters in Steenbok distribution. In East Africa, it occurs in southern Kenya and Tanzania. It was formerly widespread in Uganda, but is now possibly extinct there. In southern Africa, it occurs in Angola, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and probably Lesotho. Steenbok can use a variety of habitats from semi-desert, such as the edge of the Kalahari Desert and Etosha National Park, to open woodland and thickets, including open plains, stony savannah, and Acacia-grassland mosaics. They are said to favour unstable or transitional habitats. Steenbok typically browse on low-level vegetation (they cannot reach above 0.9 m), but are also adept at scraping up roots and tubers. In central Kruger National Park, Steenbok show a distinct preference for forbs, and then woody plants (especially Flueggea virosa) when few forbs are available. They will also take fruits and only very rarely graze on grass. They are almost entirely independent of drinking water, gaining the moisture they need from their food. At the first sign of trouble, Steenbok typically lie low in the vegetation. If a predator or perceived threat comes closer, a Steenbok will leap away and follow a zigzag route to try to shake off the pursuer. Escaping Steenbok frequently stop to look back, and flight is alternated with prostration during extended pursuit.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Peru
Species: White-Lipped Peccary
Species Description:
The White-lipped Peccary, Tayassu pecari, is a peccary species found in Central and South America, living in rainforest, dry forest and chaco scrub. It is monotypic within the genus Tayassu. The white-lipped peccary is diurnal and lives in large herds of 50 to 300+ individuals, though there have been reported sightings of up to 2,000 individuals. It is an omnivorous animal, feeding on fruits, roots, tubers, palm nuts, grasses and invertebrates. Like the collared peccary, it is a main prey species of the jaguar and, less frequently, of the cougar. The white-lipped peccary is widely considered the most dangerous peccary; unlike the rather shy collared peccary, the white-lipped species will charge at any enemy if cornered, and when one of them is injured, the entire herd returns to defend it. There are reports of jaguars being killed by angered peccary herds and even some humans have been killed. The white-lipped peccary is found in Central America and South America. It ranges from southeast Mexico, throughout eastern Central America, to northern Argentina. The white-lipped peccary was introduced to Cuba in 1930, but possibly is no longer found there. According to the IUCN it's already extinct in El Salvador and its range has been reduced in Mexico and Central America during the last 20 years.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Thailand
Species: Barking Deer
Location: China
Species: Forest Musk Deer
Species Description:
__ Musk deer are artiodactyls of the genus Moschus, the only genus of family Moschidae. They are more primitive than the cervids, or true deer, in not having antlers or facial glands, in having only a single pair of teats, and in possessing a gall bladder, a caudal gland, a pair of tusk-like teeth and--of particular economic importance to humans--a musk gland. Moschids live mainly in forested and alpine scrub habitats in the mountains of southern Asia notably Himalayas. Musk deer resemble small deer with a stocky build, and hind legs longer than their front legs. They are approximately 31 to 39 inches in length, 20 to 28 inches tall at the shoulder, and weigh between 15 and 37 lbs. The feet of musk deer are adapted for climbing in rough terrain. Musk deer are herbivores, living in hilly, forested environments, generally far from human habitation. Like true deer, they eat mainly leaves, flowers, and grasses, with some mosses and lichens. They are solitary animals, and maintain well-defined territories, which they scent mark with their caudal glands. Males leave their territories during the rutting season, and compete for mates, using their tusks as weapons. Female musk deer give birth to a single fawn after about 150-180 days. The newborn young are very small, and essentially motionless for the first month of their life, a feature that helps them remain hidden from predators. Musk deer have been hunted for their scent glands, which can fetch up to $45,000/kg on the black market. It is rumored that ancient royalty wore the scent of the musk deer and that it is an aphrodisiac.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: China
Species: Himalayan Goral
Species Description:
__ The Himalayan Goral (Naemorhedus goral), also known as the Gray Goral, is a small, rough-haired, cylindrical-horned ruminant native to the Himalayas. The Himalayan Goral is typically 37-53 inches in length and weighs 77-92 lbs. It has a gray or gray-brown coat with tan legs, lighter patches on its throat, and a single dark stripe along its spine. Males have short manes on their necks. Both males and females have backward-curving horns which can grow up to 7 inches in length. In addition to certain peculiarities in the form of the skull, gorals are chiefly distinguished from the closely-related serows in that they do not possess a gland below the eye, nor a corresponding depression in the skull. The Himalayan Goral is very agile and can run quickly. Due to its coloration it is very well camouflaged, so that it is extremely difficult to sight it, especially since it spends much of the day lying still. However, it is hunted by various predators. When threatened, the Himalayan Goral will vocalize with hissing or sneezing sounds.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Peru
Species: Tayra
Location: China
Species: Himalayan Goral
Location: China
Species: Chinese Monal
Species Description:
The Chinese Monal, Lophophorus lhuysii, is one of the most brilliant of all pheasants. The plumage is highly iridescent. The male has a large drooping purple crest, a metallic green head, blue bare skin around the eyes, a reddish gold mantle, bluish green feathers and black underparts. The female is dark brown with white on its throat. Largest of the three monals, up to 80cm in length, the Chinese Monal is restricted to mountains of central China.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Thailand
Species: Large Indian Civet
Location: Kenya
Species: Vulterine Guineafowl
Location: Peru
Species: Cougar
Species Description:
This large, solitary cat has the greatest range of any large wild terrestrial mammal in the Western Hemisphere, extending from Yukon in Canada to the southern Andes of South America. An adaptable, generalist species, the cougar is found in every major American habitat type. It is the second heaviest cat in the American continents after the jaguar. Although large, the cougar is most closely related to smaller felines. A capable stalk-and-ambush predator, the cougar pursues a wide variety of prey. Primary food sources include ungulates such as deer, elk, moose, and bighorn sheep, as well as domestic cattle, horses and sheep, particularly in the northern part of its range. It will also hunt species as small as insects and rodents. This cat prefers habitats with dense underbrush and rocky areas for stalking, but it can also live in open areas. Due to excessive hunting following the European colonization of the Americas and the continuing human development of cougar habitat, populations have dropped in most parts of its historical range. In particular, the cougar was extirpated in eastern North America in the beginning of the 20th century, except for an isolated sub-population in Florida. However, in recent decades, breeding populations have moved east into the far western parts of the Dakotas, Nebraska, and Oklahoma. Also, transient males have been verified as far east as the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and Illinois, where a cougar was shot in the city limits of Chicago.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Kenya
Species: Blue Wildebeest
Species Description:
__ A distinctive, high-shouldered antelope, with a long, broad muzzle and cow-like horns, the blue wildebeest is famous for forming vast migratory herds. The species gets its common name from the silvery-blue sheen to the coat, the base colour of which varies from greyish to brown. The forequarters bear vertical black stripes - the 'brindled' colouration that gives the species one of its alternative names - and the front of the face, the long tail, and the mane are also black. The long beard may be black or white, depending on the subspecies. Both the male and female have unridged horns, which curve downward laterally before pointing upward and inward, and in older animals may have a knobby base. Five subspecies of blue wildebeest are recognised: the western white-bearded wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus mearnsi), the eastern white-bearded wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus albojubatus), the Johnston's or Nyassa wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus johnstoni), Cookson's wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus cooksoni), and the blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus taurinus). C. t. mearnsi, the smallest of these, with the shortest horns, is the subspecies which forms the famous large herds of the Serengeti-Masai Mara. The blue wildebeest can be distinguished from the black wildebeest (or white-tailed gnu), Connochaetes gnu, by its larger size, lighter colouration, and a black rather than white tail.
Source: Encyclopedia of Life
Location: Peru
Species: Tayra
Location: Thailand
Species: Asian Golden Cat
Species Description:
The Asian Golden Cat (Pardofelis temminckii, syn. Catopuma temminckii), also called the Asiatic Golden Cat and Temminck's Golden Cat, is a medium-sized wild cat of Southeastern Asia. In 2008, the IUCN classified Asian Golden cats as Near Threatened, stating that the species comes close to qualifying as Vulnerable due to hunting pressure and habitat loss, since Southeast Asian forests are undergoing the world's fastest regional deforestation rates. The Asian Golden Cat is heavily built, with a typical cat-like appearance. It has a head-body length of 26 to 41 inches, with a tail 16 to 22 inches long, and is 22 inches at the shoulder. The weight ranges from 20 to 35 lbs., which is about two or three times the size of a domesticated cat. The cat's fur is uniform in color, but highly variable ranging from red to golden brown, dark brown to pale cinnamon, gray to black. Transitional forms among the different colorations also exist. It may be marked with spots and stripes. White and black lines run across the cheeks and up to the top of the head, while the ears are black with a central grey area. Golden cats with leopard-like spots have been found in China, resembling a large leopard cat. This spotted fur is a recessive characteristic. Asian Golden cats can climb trees when necessary. They hunt birds, large rodents and reptiles, small ungulates such as muntjacs and young sambar deer. They are capable of bringing down prey much larger than themselves, such as domestic water buffalo calves. In the mountains of Sikkim, they reportedly prey on ghoral.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: China
Species: Asian Black Bear
Location: China
Species: Siberian Weasel
Species Description:
The Siberian Weasel (Mustela sibirica), also known as the Himalayan Weasel, Yellow Weasel, Chorok, Kolonok or Kolinsky, is a medium-sized species of weasel native to Asia. It is classed as Least Concern for extinction by the IUCN, due to its wide distribution and presumably large numbers. In form and hunting behaviour, the Siberian weasel represents a transitional form between small mustelids (such as stoats and least weasels) and their larger cousins (minks and polecats). It is a valuable furbearer, particularly for the paint brush industry. Siberian weasels have long, stretched out bodies with relatively short legs, but are more heavily built than solongois, stoats and least weasels. Their heads are elongated, narrow and relatively small, and their ears are broad at the base, but short. Their tails represent half their body length. Their winter fur is very dense, soft and fluffy, with guard hairs reaching 3-4 cm in length. The underfur is dense and loose fitting. Siberian weasels are monotone in colour, being bright reddish-ocherous or straw-red, though orange or peach tones are sometimes noticeable on the skin. Siberian weasels have an extended rutting period which is subject to geographic variation. The rut begins in early Ferbruary through to late March in western Siberia. In Primorye, the rut begins in early March through to late April. Six pairs of Siberian weasels in a fur sovkhoz near Moscow began rutting from 25 April to 15 May. Siberian weasels are not fussy about their shelters. They may nest inside fallen logs, empty stumps, brushwood piles and exposed tree roots. They also use and enlarge the dens of other animals. In terms of prey selection, Siberian weasels are midway between small, rodent-eating mustelids and the more polyphagous martens. They rarely eat reptiles, invertebrates and plants, preferring instead to prey on rodents of small to moderate size. In Chinese folklore, the Siberian weasel is viewed as a wandering spirit (shen) that can steal and replace people's souls. Although Siberian weasels are overall useful for limiting rodent populations, they are nonetheless damaging to poultry and muskrat farms. They frequently enter the roosts of domesticated fowl and pigeons, sometimes killing more than they can eat.
Source: Wikipedia
Species: African Buffalo
Location: Laikipia District, Kenya
Location: China
Species: Tufted Deer
Location: Panama
Species: Kinkajou
Location: China
Species: Masked Palm Civet
Species Description:
The Masked Palm Civet or Himalayan Palm Civet (Paguma larvata) is a species of civet spread across the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. In appearance the Masked Palm Civet resembles other civets. Its fur is orange-brown to gray, and has no spots or stripes, unlike most other related species. Only the feet are darker, often black. he main body varies from 20 to 28 inches in length, to which is added a tail of 20 to 25 inches. It was between 8 and 13.2 lbs. They are not native to Japan, but were itroduced there at the beginning of the 20th century. They live in forests, especially tropical rainforest and temperate deciduous forest. The masked palm civet is a nocturnal solitary predator, which stays principally in trees. During the day, it sleeps in the treetops. When alarmed, the animal sprays a secretion from its anal gland against the predator. The spray is similar in function to that of a skunk, and its conspicuousness serves to deter other predators. The masked palm civet is an omnivore, but the largest component of its diet is fruit. In addition it eats small vertebrates (such as squirrels and birds) as well as insects. In parts of China masked palm civets are hunted for their meat and eaten. Inadequate preparation of the meat may have been the cause for the outbreak of SARS.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Kenya
Species: Greater Kudu
Species Description:
The greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) is a woodland antelope found throughout eastern and southern Africa. They have a narrow body with long legs, and their coats can range from brown/bluish-grey to reddish-brown. They possess between 4-12 vertical white stripes along their torso. The head tends to be darker in colour than the rest of the body, and exhibits a small white chevron which runs between the eyes. Male greater kudus tend to be much larger than the females, and vocalize much more, utilizing low grunts, clucks, humming, and gasping. The males also have large manes running along their throats, and large horns with two and a half twists, which, were they to be straightened, would reach a length of 1 metre on average. However, the male horns do not begin to grow until the male is between the age of 6-12 months, twisting once at around 2 years of age, and not reaching the full two and a half twist until they are 6 years old. Predators of the greater kudu generally consist of lions, leopards and hunting dogs. Although cheetahs also prey on greater kudus, they are unable to bring down a mature male, so usually go for the more vulnerable females and offspring. When a herd is threatened by predators, an adult (usually female) will issue a bark to alert the rest of the herd. Despite being very nimble over rocky hillsides and mountains, the greater kudu is not fast enough (and nor does it have enough stamina) to escape its main predators over open terrain, so instead relies on leaping over shrubs and small trees to shake off pursuers.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Thailand
Species: Wild Boar
Location: Thailand
Species: Mouse Deer
Species Description:
Tragulus is a genus of even-toed ungulates in the Tragulidae family that are known as mouse-deer. Tragos refers to a goat in Greek, while -ulus in Latin means 'tiny'. With a weight of 1.5-18 lbs and a length of 16-30 inches they are the smallest ungulates in the world, though the largest species of mouse-deer surpass some species of Neotragus antelopes in size. The mouse-deer are restricted to southeast Asia from far southern China (south Yunnan) to the Philippines (Balabac) and Java. Following recent taxonomic changes, several of the species in this genus are poorly known, but all are believed to be mainly nocturnal and feed on leaves, fruits, grass and other vegetation in the dense forest undergrowth. They are solitary or live in pairs, and the males have elongated canine teeth (neither gender has horns) that are used in fights. Unlike other members of their family, the Tragulus mouse-deer lack obvious pale stripes/spots on the upperparts.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Appalachian Trail, USA
Project Description:
May, 2007 - November, 2009
Cameras Used: Deercam, Reconyx RM45, Covert 550
Number of Camera Stations: 537
Project Objectives: Citizen-science based wildlife monitoring project using the Appalachian Trail as a MEGA-transect. Data is used to assess anthropogenic and landscape effects on mammal occupancy in the AT corridor. Species: Fisher
Species Description: The fisher (Martes pennanti) is a medium-sized mammal native to North America. It is a member of the Mustelid family, commonly referred to as the weasel family. The fisher is closely related to but larger than the American Marten (Martes americana). The fisher is a forest-dwelling creature whose range covers much of the boreal forest in Canada to the northern fringes of the United States. Names derived from aboriginal languages include pekan, pequam, and wejack. It is also sometimes erroneously referred to as the fisher cat. Males and females are similar in appearance but the males are larger in size. Males are between 35-47 inches in length and weigh between 8-11 lbs. Females measure 30-37 inches and weigh between 4-6 lbs. The fur of the fisher varies seasonally, being denser and glossier in the winter. During the summer the colors become more mottled as the fur goes through a molting cycle. Fishers prefer to hunt in full forest. While they are agile climbers most of their time is spent on the forest floor. They also prefer to forage where there is a lot of fallen dead wood on the forest floor. Fishers are omnivorous and will feed on a wide variety of small animals and occasionally fruits and mushrooms. They show a preference for the snowshoe hare and are one of the few predators able to hunt porcupine. Despite their name, fishers seldom eat fish.
Source: Wikipedia
Location: Thailand
Species: Gaur
Location: Thailand
Species: Large Indian Civet
Location: Peru
Species: Ocelot

These 100 photos were taken by Smithsonian Institute-affiliated wildlife researchers in China, South America, Southeast Asia, and six other study locations around the globe. "Our hope is that while you are being entertained by the amazing photographs, you will also learn about the animals, their diverse habitats, and what is being done to conserve them," says the Institute. Visit the Smithsonian WILD web site for more information about the photos, the studies they were taken for, and the Smithsonian Institute's wildlife conservation efforts.