What will this mean for hunters in the region, and elsewhere? In perfect candor, nobody knows for sure, or as Bangs puts it, "We all make better historians than prophets." Still, there is no lack of dire predictions about the impact wolves will have on wildlife. Assorted ranching interests and sportsmen's associations envision that without strenuous control efforts, there will be 5,700 wolves by 2010; and each one will kill 100 elk per year, plunging calf-to-cow ratios to zero. Inevitably, the doomsayers maintain, game will be wiped out. They also claim that environmentalists, with the support of the USFWS, will never allow wolves to be hunted, and the ultimate motive is for the wolf to become the principal instrument of big-game management, eliminating any need for licensed hunters and hunting. Is there any basis for these alarming assertions? Without question, those who want to do away with hunting are legion, but very few of the antis seem to be directly associated with wolf restoration (everyone actively involved accepts as a given that wolves will need to be killed, some by hunters). As for the remaining claims, most should properly come under the heading of woods lore, or even tall tales, rather than solid scientific study (see sidebar). Bangs says, "If wolves were going to wipe out the elk, they would have done it 10,000 years ago-why wait till now?"